State and Federal Laws
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) does not require patient consent and authorization for the exchange of health information among healthcare providers for the purpose of medical care. The patient consent is implied by her general consent to be treated.
Some states have adopted heightened laws (higher than those imposed by HIPAA) that require explicit patient consent and authorization for specially-protected health information such as sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus tests, viral hepatitis, genetic information, substance abuse, mental health, and developmental disabilities.
The lack of patient trust can be a significant barrier to the implementation of a HIE. Therefore, a common practice in HIEs is to offer individual patients the opportunity to opt-out of exchanging their health information even if patient consent is not required by existing laws and regulations. Patients are notified and informed of their consent options through an outreach program.
The HHS Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) releases a Consumer Preferences Requirements Document in October 2009. The document describes consent stakeholders, functional needs, policy implications, scenarios, and processes including HIEs.
The ONC released a whitepaper in March 2010 entitled "Consumer Consent Options for Electronic Health Information Exchange: Policy Considerations and Analysis". The whitepaper identified the following consent options:
- No consent. Health information of patients is automatically included—patients cannot opt out;
- Opt-out. Default is for health information of patients to be included automatically, but the patient can opt out completely;
- Opt-out with exceptions. Default is for health information of patients to be included, but the patient can opt out completely or allow only select data to be included;
- Opt-in. Default is that no patient health information is included; patients must actively express consent to be included, but if they do so then their information must be all in or all out; and
- Opt-in with restrictions. Default is that no patient health information is made available, but the patient may allow a subset of select data to be included.
The granularity of patient consent preference can be based on the type of data, healthcare provider, time range, and intended use.
The IHE Basic Patient Privacy Consents (BPPC) provides a mechanism to record and enforce patient consents. It complements the IHE Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing (XDS) standard by specifying how an XDS affinity domain can create privacy policies and enforce those policies through the access control mechanisms of an XDS Actor such as an EHR system. Patient consent is captured in an HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) document using a scanned document (wet signature on paper) or a digital signature.
HL7 is working on a set of specifications for the creation and use of privacy consent directives.
The Nationwide Health Information Network (NHIN) Access Consent Policies Specification is based on the eXtended Access Control Markup Language (XACML), an OASIS standard.
Health Record Banks (HRBs)
An emerging pattern is to include a Health Record Bank (HRB) containing Personal Health Records (PHRs) as a participating node in the HIE. The HRB is accessible to patients via a web portal and allows patients to exercise fine-grained control over the exchange of their health records within the HIE through a consent configuration interface.
UPDATE: On Thursday, July 8, 2010, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announced proposed modifications to the HIPAA Privacy & Security Rules.